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Definition of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure (HBP), Causes of Hypertension, Risk Factors of Hypertension, Symptoms of Hypertension, Diagnosis of Hypertension, Treatment Management and Nursing Care for Hypertension, Prognosis of Hypertension, Diet for Hypertension, Prevention of Hypertension.

Diagnosis of Hypertension

Generally, The doctors do not diagnose a patient with hypertension based on one time of blood pressure measurement. There are many factors that can artificially raise a patient's blood pressure. They will check and monitoring the blood pressure's level in between 3 to 5 days and make an assessment to collect some information.

To avoid missing the diagnosis of coarctation of aorta or subclavian artery stenosis, The best way is to check the blood pressure in both arms and in one leg when receiving a patient with sign and symptom of hypertension for the first visit's time.

An accurate measurement of blood pressure is the key to diagnose of hypertension or high blood pressure level. Blood pressure should be measured in sitting positions with their arms supported at heart level, auscultating with the bell of the stethoscope. Ask to the patient whether he or she has ever been told by medical provider (doctors and nurse) if they have high blood pressure.

The Patients should not smoke or drink caffeinated beverages within 30 minutes before their blood pressure measurement. If blood pressure is elevated, the doctor will check the patient's pulse rate, check the heart for enlargement and murmurs, examine the neck for distended veins or an enlarged thyroid gland, and examine the abdomen and Look at the back of the eyes with an ophthalmoscope (examining the small blood vessels for signs of damage from chronic hypertension).

When a physical examination indicates hypertension, additional tests may help determine whether it is secondary hypertension or essential hypertension. Essential hypertension is diagnosed in the absence of an identifiable secondary cause.

Additional tests for patient who have suspect of hypertension:
  • Blood Tests and Urinalysis; potassium levels, cholesterol, blood sugar, infection, kidney function, and other possible problems.
  • Tests to Evaluate the Heart; ECG, Exercise stress test and Echocardiogram.
  • Tests to Evaluate the Kidneys; A Doppler or duplex test (to see whether one of the arteries supplying blood to the kidney is narrowed, a condition called renal artery stenosis).

According to the diagnosis of hypertension and stage (level) of blood pressure measurement, the medical provider will start treatment by prescribe the patient with a single or combination drugs to lower the blood pressure.


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