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Definition of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure (HBP), Causes of Hypertension, Risk Factors of Hypertension, Symptoms of Hypertension, Diagnosis of Hypertension, Treatment Management and Nursing Care for Hypertension, Prognosis of Hypertension, Diet for Hypertension, Prevention of Hypertension.

Definition of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure (HBP)

Definition Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated. Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time our heart beats, it pumps out blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood (systolic pressure). When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls (diastolic pressure).

Hypertension is also referred to as high blood pressure (HBP) or shortened to HT, HTN or HPN. The word "hypertension", by itself, normally refers to systemic, arterial hypertension. (Wikipedia).

The normal number of blood pressure is 120/80 mmHG, It's mean that the systolic is measure as 120 and the diastolic pressures is 80. Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure.

More information about definition of hypertension or high blood pressure please visit this link : Hypertension or High Blood Pressure.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 3:23 PM, ,

Causes of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure

Hypertension or High Blood Pressure (HBP) is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated in the arteries or blood vessels of human body. Hypertension result from a narrowing of the arterioles, which increases peripheral resistance, necessitating increased force to circulate blood trough the body.

There are two types of high blood pressure;
  1. Primary hypertension.

    In 90 to 95 percent of hypertension cases in adults, the cause is unknown. This type of high blood pressure, called essential hypertension or primary hypertension, tends to develop gradually over many years.Someone can have high blood pressure for years without knowing it.

    Essential hypertension develops only in groups or societies that have a fairly high intake of salt, exceeding 5.8 grams daily. If we take too much caffeine it can cause nervousness and jitters and palpitations, It may also increase your blood pressure. Stress mental can be an important cause of hypertension or high blood pressure.

  2. Secondary hypertension.

    About 5 to 10 percent of hypertension cases are caused by an underlying condition, This type of high blood pressure called as secondary hypertension. Many of medical condition and medications can lead to secondary hypertension, including:
    • Kidney disease (abnormalities),
    • Tumors of the adrenal gland,
    • Endocrine disease (hormone disorders; a hormone is a regulatory chemical that occurs naturally in your body),
    • A narrowing of the aorta (the largest artery leading from the heart) or the arteries leading to the kidneys,
    • Certain medications, such as contraceptive pill, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugsIllegal drugs, such as cocaine and amphetamines,
    • Pregnancy, which can cause pre-eclampsia - this can be serious and harm your baby.

Commonly, people with hypertension feel no different from those who have normal blood pressure level, They do not have symptoms when they have high blood pressure. That's why hypertension is often referred to as "the silent killer."


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Articles About Hypertension @ 2:18 PM, ,

Risk Factors of Hypertension

Although the cause of hypertension or blood pressure is often unknown, Hypertension has many risk factors that can increase the chance of developing the condition. Many diseases have important risk factors, and hypertension is no exception.

The risk factors of hypertension run far and deep. Hypertension or high blood pressure risk factors include:


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Articles About Hypertension @ 5:52 AM, ,

Symptoms of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure

One of the most dangerous aspects of hypertension is that you may not know that you have it, Because it often has no signs or symptoms. The hypertension or high blood pressure is many times referred to as the silent killer.

People who have high blood pressure typically don't know it until their blood pressure is checked or measured on a regular basis. This is especially important if you have a close relative who has high blood pressure.

Extremely high blood pressure may have the following symptoms:
  • Severe headache.

    Most of people have experienced headaches, A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the head (occipital), or in the back of the upper neck. It is possible to experience a headache as one of the effects of hypertension.

  • Dizziness.

    This is one of the more common complaints from people with high blood pressure. Dizziness is a common description for many different feelings, there could be many reasons why a person may become dizzy. Remember, low blood pressure can be accompanied by dizziness.

  • Vision problems.

    Change in vision (blurred vision) can also be a sign of high blood pressure. Blurred vision is lack of sharpness of vision with, as a result, the inability to see fine detail.

  • Chest pain.

    Although it is a long known fact that hypertension can cause chest pain, it is not a commonly known fact. The chest pain associated with pulmonary hypertension occurs with exertion and is relieved by rest, and may be indistinguishable from the chest pain associated with cardiac ischemia.

  • Tinnitus.

    One of hypertension's symptoms is ringing in the ear (tinnitus). There are a host of reasons a person could be experiencing tinnitus, So that better to see the doctor if has these symptom.

The others possible symptom cause by hypertension are Blood in the urine, Pounding (in your chest, neck, or ears), and Nausea. The problem is about 1% of people with high blood pressure do not seek medical care until the high blood pressure is very severe, a condition known as malignant hypertension.

If you have any symptom that appear like description above, see a doctor immediately. Maybe you have hypertensive crisis that could lead to a heart attack or stroke.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 11:28 AM, ,

Diagnosis of Hypertension

Generally, The doctors do not diagnose a patient with hypertension based on one time of blood pressure measurement. There are many factors that can artificially raise a patient's blood pressure. They will check and monitoring the blood pressure's level in between 3 to 5 days and make an assessment to collect some information.

To avoid missing the diagnosis of coarctation of aorta or subclavian artery stenosis, The best way is to check the blood pressure in both arms and in one leg when receiving a patient with sign and symptom of hypertension for the first visit's time.

An accurate measurement of blood pressure is the key to diagnose of hypertension or high blood pressure level. Blood pressure should be measured in sitting positions with their arms supported at heart level, auscultating with the bell of the stethoscope. Ask to the patient whether he or she has ever been told by medical provider (doctors and nurse) if they have high blood pressure.

The Patients should not smoke or drink caffeinated beverages within 30 minutes before their blood pressure measurement. If blood pressure is elevated, the doctor will check the patient's pulse rate, check the heart for enlargement and murmurs, examine the neck for distended veins or an enlarged thyroid gland, and examine the abdomen and Look at the back of the eyes with an ophthalmoscope (examining the small blood vessels for signs of damage from chronic hypertension).

When a physical examination indicates hypertension, additional tests may help determine whether it is secondary hypertension or essential hypertension. Essential hypertension is diagnosed in the absence of an identifiable secondary cause.

Additional tests for patient who have suspect of hypertension:
  • Blood Tests and Urinalysis; potassium levels, cholesterol, blood sugar, infection, kidney function, and other possible problems.
  • Tests to Evaluate the Heart; ECG, Exercise stress test and Echocardiogram.
  • Tests to Evaluate the Kidneys; A Doppler or duplex test (to see whether one of the arteries supplying blood to the kidney is narrowed, a condition called renal artery stenosis).

According to the diagnosis of hypertension and stage (level) of blood pressure measurement, the medical provider will start treatment by prescribe the patient with a single or combination drugs to lower the blood pressure.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 10:10 AM, ,

Treatment of Hypertension

Treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure is to reduce blood pressure and protect important organs, like the brain, heart, and kidneys from damage cause by complication. Hypertension increases the risk of heart failure, heart attack (myocardial infarction), and stroke.

According to the research, Treatment for hypertension has been associated with reductions in stroke (35%-40%), heart attack (20%-25%), and heart failure (more than 50%). Treating hypertension also helps to prevent atrial fibrillation.

There are many different medicines that can be used to treat hypertension or high blood pressure such as :

  • Alpha blockers (doxazosin, prazosin, and terazosin).

    Alpha blockers medicine will make relax or reduce the tone of involuntary (ie, smooth) muscle in the walls of blood vessels, It allowing the vessels to widen (vasodilation), thereby lowering blood pressure. The alpha blockers are increase the risk of developing heart failure, because of this reasons the doctors are not frequently prescribe them for the patients as a first-line treatment of essential hypertension.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (benazepril, captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, moexipril, perindopril, quinapril, ramipril, and trandolapril).

    The ACE inhibitors allow blood vessels to widen, which lowers blood pressure and improves heart output. Side effects of these medicine are persistent dry hacking when they stop to take them, It is very rare to make others problem like dry mouth, nausea, lightheadedness, dizziness with standing, rash, muscle pain, or occasionally, kidney dysfunction

  • Angiotensin receptor blockers or ARBs (candesartan, irbesartan, losartan, telmisartan, and valsartan).

    Some patient may experience dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, dry mouth, abdominal pain, or other side effects when they are taking these madicine

  • Beta-blockers (verapamil and diltiazem).

    These drugs are mostly prescribed for hypertensive patients with a resting tachycardia (racing heart beat when resting) or an acute (rapid onset, current) heart attack

  • Calcium channel blockers.

    There are two major categories of calcium channel blockers: Dihydropyridines, including amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, and nisoldipine. Nondihydropyridines, including diltiazem and verapamil

  • Central alpha agonists (Clonidine, Guanfacine and Methyldopa).

    These drugs are used only when other medications are unable to control blood pressure adequately, Because of a high frequency of side effects. Side effects include drowsiness, sleep disturbances, depression, dry mouth, constipation, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and dizziness (especially in older people).

  • Diuretics (chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, and indapamide).

    Diuretics lower blood pressure mainly by causing the kidneys to excrete more water and sodium throughout the urine. There is side-effects when using these medicine like Fatigue, dizziness, weakness and symptoms reversible impotence and gout attacks.

  • Renin inhibitors, including aliskiren (Tekturna).

    Tekturna is available for oral administration as film-coated tablets containing 150 mg, and 300 mg of aliskiren base and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hypromellose, iron oxide colorants, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, talc, and titanium dioxide.

  • Direct vasodilators (hydralazine and minoxidil).

    Both of drugs are used only for severe or resistant high blood pressure. Side effects includig headache, weakness, nausea, constipation, swelling in the lower legs, and rapid heartbeat.

Often, a single blood pressure drug may not be enough to control high blood pressure. The hypertension patients are may need to take two or more drugs. The medical doctors are prescribe all of medicine above depend on patients condition. They will see and monitoring how the hypertension or high blood pressure appear and attack the patients, may because of some other reason is also possible to treat with that medication.

Treatment of hypertension are including suggestion to the patient to do the exercise such as brisk walking at least 30 minutes a day, several days a week, Losing weight if patient have overweight or obese, follow a Healthy Eating Pattern like DASH diet (eating more fruits, vegetables, and low fat dairy products, less saturated and total fat), etc.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 1:20 AM, ,

Nursing Care for Hypertension

The nurses who has assignment to treat and managing a nursing intervention for patient with hypertension cases, They must be collect some data before implementation some of nursing procedural to the patient.

Hypertension or High Blood Pressure (HBP) is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure (tension) is elevated in the arteries or blood vessels of human body. There are two major types of hypertension, Essential hypertension and Secondary hypertension. By an assessment and read the patient's medical report, The nurses can make a plan to do the urgent and the next nursing care for their patient.

Patient who has been diagnosed as hypertension usually had anxiety's problem. Deficit of knowledge related to the hypertension condition is a target for the nursing to be an evaluation, Is the patient understand how to diet?, Is the patient check or control of their blood pressure level at home? How the patient's lifestyle? etc.

Hypertension is a symptom of hypoxia due to inadequate concentrations of oxygen in the blood, This is related to the Ineffective Tissue Perfusion. Signs and symptoms of hypoxia: hypertension, restlessness, dyspnea, tachycardia, diaphoresis, cyanosis. These situation can be happen if the hypertension appear as secondary problem from other diseases such as renal, cerebral, cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, peripheral disease.

Generally, the nurses have to responsible to the following nursing priorities at patient hypertension ;
  • Reduce the anxiety and tension of patient
  • Improve myocardial contractility/systemic perfusion.
  • Reduce fluid volume overload.
  • Prevent complications from hypertension condition.
  • Provide information about disease/prognosis, therapy needs, and prevention of recurrences.
About complete information of nursing care plan procedure, please visit nursing care plan (NCP) website at Nursing Care Plan Management.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 10:44 AM, ,

Prognosis of Hypertension

There is no cure for hypertension. The prognosis for the patients who have been diagnosed with hypertension is a good normal, probably long life, if they can control their condition to the doctors to get proper treatment.

Otherwise, The hypertension can develop or manifests as LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy), left atrial enlargement, aortic root dilatation, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, systolic and diastolic heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. The key to avoiding serious complications of hypertension or high blood pressure is to detect and treat it before damage occurs.

Prognosis of Hypertension depends on ;
  • Systolic blood pressure
  • Diastolic blood pressure
  • Sex
  • Fundal changes
  • Cardiac complications (angina, ECG, abnormality and cardiomegaly)
  • Cerebral vascular accidents
  • Renal complications.

Antihypertensive therapy has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of death from stroke and coronary heart disease. With the other word, the antihypertensive medicines can controlled the blood pressure only, but do not cure the hypertension it self. Patients must continue taking the medications to maintain and reduced blood pressure levels to avoid complications.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 6:51 AM, ,

Diet for Hypertension or High Blood Pressure

The people who diagnosed as hypertension (high blood pressure) by their physicians, they need to be aware about kind of foods would be benefit and which ones could be damaging to their condition. These articles will guide you about a healthy eating plan (diet) that reduce the risk factor of developing high blood pressure and lower an already elevated blood pressure.

People trying to control hypertension often are advised to decrease sodium, increase potassium, watch their calories, and maintain a reasonable weight. Below is a simple guidelines how to diet for the patients with hypertension or high blood pressure :

Diet for hypertension, click image to enlarge.

A. Diet lower salt and sodium intake

A key to healthy eating is choosing foods lower in salt and sodium. If you eat less sodium, your blood pressure may get down, and it decreasing heart disease risk. National Institutes of Health (NIH) has recommends limiting the sodium consumption to less than 2.4 grams (2,400 milligrams [mg]) of sodium a day.

If you are taking foods or meals that high in sodium (Na), balance them by adding high-potassium foods, such as fresh fruits like bananas and vegetables. Avoid salty and smoked foods, cold cuts and hard cheeses. To season meals, replace salt with aromatic herbs, lemon or vinegar.

B. Vegetarian diet for hypertension

Consume more vegetables can lower blood pressure levels and a lower incidence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Steamed vegetables such as spinach, green peas or green beans saute with olive oil and a couple of garlic cloves; any of these vegetables would make a healthy and tasty side dish.

Vegetarian's diet which contains more potassium, complex carbohydrates, polyunsaturated fat, fiber, calcium, magnesium, vitamin C and vitamin A, all of which may have a favorable influence on blood pressure cases.

C. Diet to reduce saturated fat

When you eat fats from animal origin such as cold cuts, meats and eggs, it will raise your blood pressure. But it different when you consume Omega-3 fats (from fish) and olive oil lower it.

D. Diet consume high fiber

Performed a diet high-fiber has been known effective to prevent and treating many forms of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Diet high fiber for people with hypertension or high blood pressure are better to take water soluble gel-forming fibers such as oat bran, apple pectin, psyllium seeds, and guar gum. These fiber also suseful to reduce cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, etc.

E. Avoid alcohol excess

Drinking more alcohol is do not only effect to raise of blood pressure, but also to the other organs of body such as harm the liver, brain, and heart. Studies have shown that an excess in alcohol consumption accounts for 7% of the hypertension cases. So, better to leave this habit.

F. Diet coffee intake

Limit beverages that contain caffeine such as coffee, tea, cokes, etc. All of them are trigger high blood pressure. Try to make the water as your favorite beverage, you cannot go wrong with it.

G. Diet more calcium and magnesium

Research has shown that low doses of calcium and magnesium, especially during menopause, raise the level of blood pressure. So, you need to increase your intake on the calcium and magnesium. Eat dark and green vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, kale, etc. Make them as your salad, it is very little work for you.

If you want to get more specific list how to diet for hypertension or high blood pressure, you can also read another diet articles such as Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. The DASH diet eating plan is recommended by NIH for patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) or prehypertension.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 5:58 AM, ,

Prevention of Hypertension or High Blood Pressure

Hypertension or High Blood Pressure can be prevented by complementary application of strategies that depend on the individual who has higher risk for high blood pressure. Changing the lifestyle can help someone to prevent of high blood pressure, especially for those people who known having risk factors to develop of high blood pressure.

The greatest long-term potential for avoiding hypertension is to apply prevention strategies early in life. There are some important point to be attention by people in order to prevent of high blood pressure ;
  1. Following a Healthy Eating Pattern.

    Make a plan of eating patterns of a low saturated fat (cholesterol and all fat), eat food which contains a lot of fruit, vegetables and low fat dairy products. Research has shown that following a healthy eating plan can both reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and lower an already elevated blood pressure.

  2. Reducing Salt and Sodium in Your Diet.

    When preparing a healthy food, It's mean you choose foods that lower in salt and sodium. The current recommendation is to consume less than 2.4 grams (2,400 milligrams[mg] ) or about 1 teaspoon of sodium a day including that used in cooking and at the table.

  3. Maintaining a Healthy Weight.

    Overweight will increase a risk factor to develop of high blood pressure. Losing even 10 pounds can lower blood pressure, reducing dietary-sodium intake, and the daily aerobic activity are all proven strategies for preventing hypertension.

  4. Being Physically Active.

    The active body also important steps to take a rule in order to prevent or control high blood pressure. It also helps reduce the risk factor of heart disease. It doesn't take a lot of effort to become physically active.

  5. Limiting Alcohol Intake.

    Those people who always consume of alcohol, they must reduce their habit. Drinking more alcohol is do not only effect to raise of blood pressure, but also to the other organs of body such as harm the liver, brain, and heart. Remember that the alcohol is contain some of calories, which matter if you are trying to lose weight.

  6. Quitting Smoking.

    Smoking injures blood vessel walls and speeds up the process of hardening of the arteries. Smoking is bad for anyone, especially those with high blood pressure.


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Articles About Hypertension @ 3:30 AM, ,